While some people think it is better to ask for forgiveness than permission, it’s better still to get a deal that doesn’t require either. Albert would like to buy the station. If he can get an option to buy the station at $560k, that’s better than violating his authority to go above $520k. Even if he does get such an option, he can still come back and offer $540k. (“I couldn’t get approval for $560k, but I did get approval for $540k.”) The problem with (d) is that he is offering to buy the station at a price that exceeds his authority.