Some, but not all things can be measured using number metrics. The authors state the importance of deciding whether the thing being measured is quantifiable or not before setting targets based on metrics alone. For things like culture that cannot be directly measured, one must define what success means when trying to measure them.
Executing strategy produces results. The results lead to insights, which can and should be applied to adjust strategy or execution plans (or both).
Actions that achieve or help achieve the most important goals should be prioritized disproportionately over other goals, and the tools of productivity should not be allowed to get in the way of productivity itself.