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Diabetes a Global Challenge Answer

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Week- 1

Epidemiology of Diabetes

 

1.
Question 1
How is the trend in occurrence of diabetes worldwide?

1 point

  • Increasing
  • Decreasing
  • Stable

2.
Question 2
How is diabetes defined?

1 point

  • A disease in which insulin works too effectively
  • A disease in which glucose is excreted with the urine
  • A disease in which the pancreas secretes no or too little insulin

3.
Question 3
What is the difference between type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

1 point

  • Type 1 diabetes occurs only among children and type 2 only among adults
  • In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas produces no insulin, whereas in type 2 diabetes, the insulin produced does not work adequately
  • Type 2 diabetes follows after some years with type 1 diabetes

4.
Question 4
How many different types of diabetes are there?

1 point

  • Three main types and multiple more rare subtypes
  • Two, type 1 and type 2 diabetes
  • Three, type 1, type 2 and type 3 diabetes

5.
Question 5
Which region of the world is most severely affected by diabetes?

1 point

  • Europe and Russia
  • The Middle East and the Far East
  • North, Central and South America

6.
Question 6
How is the age distribution at onset of type 2 diabetes?

1 point

  • Type 2 diabetes patients get the disease shortly before they die from other diseases
  • Type 2 diabetes is mainly emerging in late adulthood
  • Type 2 diabetes emerges mainly during childhood and young adulthood

7.
Question 7
How can the global epidemic of diabetes lead to a public health crisis?

1 point

  • Not enough medicine is produced to supply all the diabetic patients with what they need
  • Nothing can be done about it
  • The diabetic patients demand a medical care that many countries cannot afford to provide

8.
Question 8
What is impaired glucose tolerance?

1 point

  • Glucose in the blood has been chemically modified and therefore cannot be tolerated
  • Intake of glucose cannot be tolerated and leads to sickness
  • Even though the pancreas secretes more insulin, it cannot keep the glucose levels down to normal levels

9.
Question 9
How is overweight affecting risk of diabetes?

1 point

  • Increases the risk
  • Decreases the risk
  • Does not affect the risk

 

 

 

Week- 2

Obesity and Prevention of Diabetes

 

1.
Question 1
How much physical activity do major health agencies recommend for adults?

1 point

At least 75 minutes of moderate-intensity or at least 35 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week – or a combination. Additionally, muscle-strengthening activities should be performed on 2 or more days a week.

At least 300 minutes of moderate-intensity or at least 150 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week – or a combination. Additionally, muscle-strengthening activities should be performed on 4 or more days a week.

At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per month – or a combination. Additionally, muscle-strengthening activities should be performed on 2 or more days a month.

At least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity or at least 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week – or a combination. Additionally, muscle-strengthening activities should be performed on 2 or more days a week.

2.
Question 2
Compared to adults, major health agencies recommend children to be…

1 point

… more physically active

… less physically active

… as physically active

3.
Question 3
The ‘state-of-the-art’ test for assessment of physical fitness is by…

1 point

… heart rate monitoring

… an activity questionnaire

… quantification of maximal oxygen uptake by indirect calorimetry during a biking or running test to exhaustion

… the doubly-labelled water method

4.
Question 4
Health benefits of being physically active include…

1 point

… a decrease in insulin sensitivity and a higher heart stroke volume

… decreases in plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride

… an increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in blood pressure

… stronger tendons and softer skin

5.
Question 5
The influence of physical training on energy balance is more complicated than previously thought as…

1 point

… compensatory mechanisms might come into play

… seasonal changes affect both physical training and energy balance

… smoking is increased by physical training

… caffeine intake is reduced by physical training

6.
Question 6
Approximately 50 kcal are expended by…

1 point

… playing with the children for two hours

… a 60-minute workout in the fitness center

… sleeping on the couch for 8 hours

… a 10-minute walk during the lunch break

7.
Question 7
Metabolic health benefits of endurance training include…

1 point

… an increase in HOMA-IR

… an increase in waist circumference

… an increase in peripheral insulin sensitivity

… a decrease in HDL-cholesterol

8.
Question 8
People with diabetes and those at risk for diabetes…

1 point

… cannot improve glycemic control by physical exercise

… should abstain from physical activity

… show decreases in peripheral insulin sensitivity after endurance training

… should be physically active on a regular basis

 

 

 

Week- 3

Physiological Regulation of Plasma Glucose

 

1.
Question 1
What is the range of normal plasma concentrations?

1 point

3-12 mmol/l

5-7 mmol/l

4-10 mmol/l

2.
Question 2
Which is the correct statement? The glucose pool is:

1 point

Extracellular volume multiplied the by plasma glucose concentration

Intracellular volume multiplied by the plasma glucose concentration

Total body water multiplied by the plasma glucose concentration

3.
Question 3
Which statement is false?

1 point

glycerol may be converted into glucose

Amino acids may be converted into glucose

Lipids may be converted into glucose

4.
Question 4
Which is the correct statement? How can beta cells sense extracellular glucose concentrations?

1 point

Because they express the glucose transporter GLUT-4

Because intracellular glucose is converted to ketone bodies

Because of the high Km of glucokinase

5.
Question 5
Which statement is false?: Insulin secretion is stimulated by…

1 point

Arginine

Sympathetic nerves

Parasympathetic nerves

6.
Question 6
Which statement is false?

1 point

The incretin effect is responsible for up to 70 % of the postprandial insulin secretion

The incretin effect is responsible for keeping up insulin secretion in type 2 diabetes

The incretin effect keeps post prandial glucose excursions low regardless of the carbohydrate load

7.
Question 7
Which statement is correct? In the liver, insulin…

1 point

stimulates glycogenolysis

Stimulates glycolysis

Stimulates gluconeogenesis

8.
Question 8
Which statement is correct: Glucagon stimulates…

1 point

glycogenesis

glycolysis

gluconeogenesis

9.
Question 9
Which is the correct statement? The limiting factor for prevention of deadly hypoglycaemia during prolonged fasting is:

1 point

Cortisol-stimulated provision of gluconeogenic amino acids

Glucose formation from ketone bodies

Glucagon-stimulation of gluconeogenesis

10.
Question 10
Which is the false statement? During exercise plasma glucose does not fall very much because:

1 point

Glycogenolysis in the muscles keeps it up

Insulin secretion is inhibited

Gluconeogenesis from lactate is increased

 

 

 

Week- 4

The Incretins

 

1.
Question 1
What is the name of the two incretin hormones?

1 point

GLP-1 and GIP

GLP-1 and oxyntomodulin

GLP-1 and PYY

Glucagon and GLP-1

2.
Question 2
Where is the incretin hormones secreted from?

1 point

The brain

The skin

The gut

The hair

3.
Question 3
What is the name of the cell type secreting the incretin hormones?

1 point

Goblet cell

Enterocyte

Enteroendocrine

4.
Question 4
GLP-1 is derived from the prohormone called

1 point

Glucagon

Progip

Proglp-1

Proglucagon

5.
Question 5
Proconvertase 1/3 is responsible for the differential splicing of proglucagon to GLP-1 in the pancreas and not in the gut?

1 point

Yes

No

6.
Question 6
Where is GLP-1 primarily degraded?

1 point

In the brain

The capillaries draining the gut

The capillaries of the gut and the liver

The blood

7.
Question 7
GLP-1 affects

1 point

Glucose regulation

Appetite regulation

Gastric emptying

All of the options

8.
Question 8
GLP-1 responses are often impaired in T2D subjects?

1 point

Yes

No

9.
Question 9
Why are GLP-1 receptor agonists used as therapy in type 2 diabetes?

1 point

Because GLP-1 inhibits glucagon secretion

Because GLP-1 inhibits appetite

All of the options

Because GLP-1 stimulate glucose induced insulin secretion

10.
Question 10
Inhibition of the DPP-4 enzyme can be used as therapy of type 2 diabetes?

1 point

Yes

No

11.
Question 11
GLP-1 receptor agonists are administered

1 point

Intravenously

Orally

Subcutaneously

Rectally

12.
Question 12
How many per cent of subjects can skip their diabetes medication for their type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass surgery?

1 point

60

20

100

40

10

80

30

13.
Question 13
Which factors may be important for the remission of type 2 diabetes after gastric bypass

1 point

Malabsorption of lipids

Cytokines

Malabsorption of carbohydrates

Gut hormones

14.
Question 14
Is the release of gut hormones (e.g. GLP-1, PYY and Oxyntomodulin) increased after gastric bypass?

1 point

No

It has not been investigated

Yes

15.
Question 15
What happens to insulin secretion if gastric bypass subjects receive a GLP-1Receptor antagonist during a meal challenge?

1 point

The insulin secretion is increased

The insulin secretion does not change

The insulin secretion is diminished

 

 

 

Week- 5

Clinical manifestation of Diabetes and treatment

 

1.
Question 1
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

The diabetes epidemics occur as a result of a true increased incidence of the disease in all countries.

Lowering of diagnostic criteria for T2D has contributed to the increased incidence of the disease.

The largest increase in future T2D incidence is expected to take place in affluent Western societies.

2.
Question 2
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

The 2 hours cut-off level for the T2D diagnosis based on an oral glucose tolerance test was based on association studies showing increased risk of microvascular complications with levels above the diagnostic threshold.

Patients with T2D do not have increased risk of cardiovascular disease after correction for the ambient plasma glucose levels.

Lowering of the cut-off criteria for fasting plasma glucose in T2D diagnosis is based on randomized trials providing conclusive evidence that intensive glucose control lower cardiovascular mortality.

3.
Question 3
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

The idea of T2D being a ”category error” reflect inappropriate knowledge about the origin and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in T2D.

The idea of T2D as a ”category error” reflect that it resemble T1D more than generally recognized.

The idea of T2D being a ”category error” reflects inappropriate attention to the known increased risk of cardiovascular complications associated with the disease.

4.
Question 4
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

The association between T2D, hypertension and dyslipidaemia may be explained by common factors occurring in foetal life influencing the risk of all of these phenotypes

The association between T2D, hypertension and dyslipidaemia is based on a common genetic origin illustrated by clustering of these states of disease in families.

The association between T2D and cancer is due to glucose lowering agents including insulin causing cancer.

5.
Question 5
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

All patients with T2D benefit to the same extent from intensive versus conventional glucose lowering treatment.

Individualized treatment of patients with T2D means that those who are expected to benefit most from the different treatment modalities will get increased access to this from health care providers.

Individualized treatment of patients with T2D will result in increased health care expenses.

6.
Question 6
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

Intensive glucose lowering treatment does not reduce cardiovascular mortality in T2D.

Multifactorial intervention does not reduce mortality from cardiovascular disease in T2D.

The legacy effect means that intensive glucose lowering treatment initiated immediately after the T2D diagnosis will ensure that the patient does not develop micro- or macro vascular complications.

7.
Question 7
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

All patients with T2D exhibit absolute defects of multiple organs including the liver, muscle, adipose tissue, the pancreatic beta cell, as well as gut incretin hormone functions.

Impaired left ventricular heart function increase the risk of developing T2D.

Genetic factors do not influence the risk of developing T2D.

8.
Question 8
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

A DXA scanning provides accurate information about the amount of intra-abdominal (visceral) fat.

Lack of expandability of the subcutaneous adipose tissue may impact adversely on glucose homeostasis due to fat accumulation and lipotoxicity in muscle, fat and the pancreatic beta cell.

Neuro-cognitive dysfunctions in T2D including depression occur solely as a result of the elevated plasma glucose level.

9.
Question 9
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

Hales and Barker were the first scientists who proposed that adverse early life conditions increases the risk of developing adult non-communicable cardiometabolic diseases.

Low birth weight is to a large extent explained by known T2D susceptibility genes causing low pancreatic insulin secretion and subsequently reduced growth in foetal life.

The ”thrifty phenotype hypothesis” provides a potential explanation for the multiple organ dysfunctions in T2D.

10.
Question 10
Choose the correct answer:

1 point

Lifestyle interventions improving diet and physical activity habits provide sustainable prevention of T2D as well as its micro- and macro vascular complications.

None of the currently used glucose lowering agents reduces the risk of diabetic vascular complications beyond their glucose lowering effects

Metformin and GLP-1 agonists are the only glucose lowering drugs which conclusively have been shown to reduce cardiovascular mortality in T2D.

 

 

 

Week- 6

Inflammatory Beta-cell Destruction in Diabetes

 

1.
Question 1
What is the cause of diabetes?

1 point

Most diabetes is due to mutations in the insulin signalling pathway causing insulin resistance

Most diabetes is caused by reduced tubular glucose reabsorption causing glucosuria

Most diabetes is due to relative or absolute insulin deficiency

2.
Question 2
What is the reason that insulin-resistant people progress from normal glucose tolerance to impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes?

1 point

Because of increased glucagon secretion from the pancreatic islets

Because of increased sucrose absorption from the gut

Because insulin secretion fails to compensate for insulin resistance

3.
Question 3
Insulin secretion in diabetes is…

1 point

reduced only because of impaired beta-cell function

increased because of increased beta-cell mass

reduced because of impaired beta-cell function and mass

4.
Question 4
What are the immune-cells involved in beta-cell killing in T1 diabetes?

1 point

B-lymphocytes and Th2 cells

Macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells

Dendritic cells and Th2 cells

5.
Question 5
How are macrophages believed to kill beta-cells in diabetes?

1 point

By direct cell-to-cell contact (‘a deadly kiss’)

By recognition of danger-associated molecular beta-cell patterns causing membrane perforation

By secretion of inflammatory mediators

6.
Question 6
How are T-cells believed to kill beta-cells in T1 diabetes?

1 point

By the release of bradykinins, histamine and prostaglandins

By the secretion of nitric oxide radicals

By the Fas/FasL or perforin/granzyme pathway

7.
Question 7
How do metabolic factors affect insulin sensitive tissues and beta-cells in T2 diabetes?

1 point

By causing low-grade inflammation and gluco-lipotoxicity in the cells

By causing vascular dysfunction, reduced blood flow and ischemia in the tissues

By causing accumulation of glycogen and protein deposits in the cells

8.
Question 8
What is a common consequence of islet inflammation in T1 and T2 diabetes?

1 point

Beta-cell necrosis

Alpha cell apoptosis

Beta-cell apoptosis

9.
Question 9
How do beta-cell sense inflammatory signals?

1 point

By beta-adrenergic receptors

By cytokine and Toll-like receptors

By mitochondrial oxidation of the increased glucose levels

10.
Question 10
What are the perspectives for future antiinflammatory therapies in T1 diabetes?

1 point

To combine T-cell inhibitors and activators of the innate immune system

To combine T-cell activators and inhibitors of the innate immune system

To combine T-cell inhibitors and inhibitors of the innate immune system

11.
Question 11
What are the perspectives for future antiinflammatory therapies in T2 diabetes?

1 point

Antiinflammatory therapy given from birth in children at genetic risk for T2 diabetes

Short courses of antiinflammatory therapy may break glucose-driven islet inflammation

Long-term cytokine biologics as monotherapy from onset of T2 diabetes

 

 

 

Week- 7

Genetic Aspects of Diabetes

1.
Question 1
Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease with an important genetic component. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in the adult European population is about 5-10%. What is the lifetime risk for the offspring for developing type 2 diabetes:

1 point

90-100%

5-10%

30-40%

2.
Question 2
Heritability measures the fraction of phenotype variability that can be attributed to genetic variation. What is the heritability of body mass index (BMI):

1 point

5-10%

10-20%

>50%

3.
Question 3
The Human Genome Project has revealed the approximate number of protein coding genes in the human genome. That is:

1 point

>100,000 genes

About 5,000-10,000 genes

About 20,000-25,000 genes

4.
Question 4
A 2 month old child is diagnosed with diabetes. The child has likely:

1 point

Neonatal diabetes

Type 1 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes

5.
Question 5
Do we need to perform a genetic test in a 2 month old child diagnosed with diabetes:

1 point

No, the diagnosis is most likely type 2 diabetes which could be treated with metformin

Yes, a genetic test will often reveal the correct diagnosis and will allow for counseling and optimal treatment choices

No, the diagnosis is most likely type 1 diabetes which should be treated with insulin

6.
Question 6
Maturity Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) is a common form of monogenic diabetes accounting for up to:

1 point

5-10% of all cases of diabetes

1-2% of all cases of diabetes

>10% of all cases of diabetes

7.
Question 7
Children diagnosed with GCK-diabetes (MODY2) should be treated with:

1 point

No treatment

Metformin

Sulphonylurea

8.
Question 8
Patients diagnosed with HNF1A-diabetes (MODY3) with elevated glucose levels should be offered treatment with:

1 point

Sulphonylurea

Metformin

Insulin

9.
Question 9
Genome wide association studies have revealed a number of common variants which increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. How many type 2 diabetes risk variants have been reported:

1 point

About 10

About 20

>50

10.
Question 10
Is it important to perform genetic testing for monogenic forms of diabetes in selected patient groups:

1 point

Yes, testing makes the right diagnosis, helps counseling and can guide choice of treatment

No, following present treatment guidelines are sufficient

No, circulating biomarkers can be used to diagnose specific forms of diabetes which makes the right diagnosis, helps counseling and can guide choice of treatment

 

 

 

Week- 8

Translational Aspects

 

1.
Question 1
Translational
science is

1 point

from
diabetes to treatment

from
bedside to lab bench

from lab bench to bedside

2.
Question 2
During an OGTT in subjects with mutations on their KCNQ1 receptor the consequence was

1 point

Hyperglycemia

Hypoglycemia

Euglycemia

3.
Question 3
Patients with
mutation in their GIP receptor had

1 point

Lower fracture risk

higher fracture risk

no difference

 

 

 

Week- 9

Development of antidiabetic agents

 

1.
Question 1
The response of GI hormones during a meal is

1 point

The secretion of GI hormones e.g. GLP-1 is reduced

No response

The secretion of GI hormones e.g. GLP-1 is increased

2.
Question 2
Ghrelin levels increase during intake of a meal

1 point

True

False

Nothing happens to ghrelin

3.
Question 3
The Gut microbiota may assist the conversion of carbohydrates (fibres) into

short chain fatty acids (SCFA)

1 point

False

True

4.
Question 4
Gut hormones may exert

1 point

Paracrine functions

All of the mentioned options

Neuronal activation (e. g. sensory vagal afferents)

Endocrine functions

5.
Question 5
What does residual capacity of the enteroendocrine cells means?

1 point

That they have residual ATP

That the enteroendocrine cells may still be able to release hormone upon additional stimulation by e.g. nutrients (a bigger meal )

That more GLP-1 is being secreted

Nothing, just an expression

6.
Question 6
Which of the following hormones may influence satiety in humans?

1 point

PYY

Ghrelin

CCK

GLP-1

All of the mentioned options

7.
Question 7
The melanocortin receptor 4 is not associated with obesity?

1 point

False

We don’t know

True

8.
Question 8
What is the meaning of the expression: the gut-brain axis?

1 point

That activities in the gut may influence brain activities

That it is the gut which controls our emotions?

Nobody knows

That the brain controls the gut

9.
Question 9
Which receptor(s) does Amferpramone block?

1 point

DAT

All of the mentioned

NET

SERT

10.
Question 10
What is the main effect of Orlistat?

1 point

Inhibition of the pancreatic lipase

Inhibition of NET

Inhibition of adrenergic receptors

11.
Question 11
Can GLP-1 analogs been used in treatment of obesity?

1 point

Yes, but the GLP-1 analogue need to be resistant to inactivation by DPP-4

No

Yes

12.
Question 12
Can mixture of more than one peptide be beneficial in treatment of obesity?

1 point

No

Yes, use of more than one peptide can be beneficial in treatment of obesity

13.
Question 13
Glucagon together with GLP-1 could be an important co-agonist in treatment of diabetes and obesity?

1 point

True

False

Glucagon does not regulate satiety

Maybe

 

 

 

Week- 10

Stem Cell Based Therapy of Diabetes

 

1.
Question 1
Diabetes late complications distinguish type 1 diabetes from type 2 diabetes.

1 point

True

No, it is the reverse

No, both forms of diabetes can result in similar severe late complications.

2.
Question 2
Obese insulin-resistant people with normal blood-glucose levels have…

1 point

… a reduced beta cell mass compared to weight-matched T2D patients

… an unchanged beta cell mass compared to weight-matched T2D patients

… a greater beta cell mass compared to weight-matched T2D patients

3.
Question 3
Why is a constant blood-glucose important? (multiple answers are allowed in this question)

1 point

It secures constant energy to the brain

It prevents many of the diabetes late complications to develop

It allows you to effectively secrete glucose into the urine

4.
Question 4
Which symptom is considered amongst the worst when suffering from insulin-dependent diabetes?

1 point

Normoglycemia

Hypoglycemia

Hyperglycemia

5.
Question 5
The “Edmonton protocol” (published in yr 2000) refers to (multiple answers are allowed in this question):

1 point

Organ donor islet transplantation of T1D that effectively lead to strong reduction of recurrent hypoglycemic episodes

Organ donor islet transplantation of T1D patients to reach a situation where need for insulin injections may be strongly reduced or not needed

Whole pancreas transplantation to cure diabetes.

6.
Question 6
Circulating C-peptide levels in T1D patients indicate (multiple answers are allowed in this question):

1 point

That they will have a greater probability to develop severe complications

That patients still produce some endogenous insulin

Presence of active, living beta cells that have not yet been destroyed by autoimmunity

7.
Question 7
What is the major mechanism used by our body to secure maintenance of adult stem cells (or tissue stem cells) throughout life?

1 point

Asymmetrical cell division

Symmetrical cell division

Neo-formation

8.
Question 8
From which germ layer are the insulin producing pancreatic beta cells are derived?

1 point

Endoderm

Ectoderm

Mesoderm

9.
Question 9
Encapsulation of therapeutic beta cells serve the following purpose(s) (multiple answers are allowed in this question):

1 point

To protect against attack from the patient’s immune system

Eliminates the need for anti-rejection therapy

To shield the cells against oxidative stress

10.
Question 10
The pancreas is 98% exocrine and 2 % endocrine – what does it mean?

1 point

The endo- and exocrine cells secrete their products into the blood stream

The endocrine products are secreted into the blood stream while the exocrine products are secreted via the duct to the intestine

The endo- and exocrine cells secrete their products via the ductal system to the intestine

 

 

 

Week- 11

Exercise – how does it work?

 

1.
Question 1
What kind of fat distribution is most dangerous in relation to the development of Type 2 Diabetes?

1 point

 

2.
Question 2
Melissa has been severely injured in an accident and spends 3 weeks in bed to recover. What is the impact on her physical work capacity if you measure in years of ageing?

1 point

Equivalent to 10 years of ageing

Equivalent to 20 years of ageing

Equivalent to 30 years of ageing

Equivalent to 40 years of ageing

3.
Question 3
Ann, Beatrice and Cathrine are sisters. Who is most at risk of developing type 2 diabetes?

1 point

Ann

Age: 51

Weight: 74

BMI: 29

Physical activity: takes bus and train to work, walks a lot at work, plays tennis once a week.

Beatrice

Age: 54

Weight: 79

BMI: 27

Physical activity: drives to work, no regular exercise

Catherine

Age: 55

Weight: 80

BMI: 31

Physical activity: bikes to work, does yoga twice a week.

4.
Question 4
What are the effects of the myokines that are secreted from skeletal muscles during exercise?

1 point

They provoke an inflammatory state in some organs.

They have no effect on organs, they help build muscle tissue.

They have beneficial effects on several organs.

5.
Question 5
Which of the following proteins are secreted from an exercising leg?

1 point

IL-4

Glucagon

Adiponectin

Follistatin

GLP-1

IL-7

IL-6

6.
Question 6
How may exercise prevent tumour growth?

1 point

Exercise increases the number of immune cells and directs them towards the tumour.

Exercise does not prevent tumour growth

The myokines secreted in respons to exercise directly attacks cancer cells.

7.
Question 7
What are the effects of inflammation?

1 point

Inflammation enables us to fight infections.

Inflammation increases levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Inflammation increases levels of myokines.

There are no effects of inflammation.

8.
Question 8
Does the location of fat affect systemic inflammation?

1 point

Yes, because the location of fat affects the secretion of myokines.

No, fat affects inflammation independent of location.

Yes, because (in particular) visceral fat induces low-grade inflammation.

9.
Question 9
Why is exercise beneficial for a wide range of chronic illnesses like Dementia, Cancer, Depression and Type 2 Diabetes?

1 point

Exercise reduces systemic inflammation and provides proper navigation for immune cells to find cancerous cells.

Exercise is not beneficial for chronic illnesses.

Exercise only have acute effects on our health and not long-term effects.

I understand that submitting another’s work as my own can result in zero credit for this as

 

 

 

Week- 11

Peer-graded Assignment: Peer graded assignment

 

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